A Powerful Antioxidant
Saffron contains an impressive variety of plant compounds that act as antioxidants — molecules that protect your cells against free radicals and oxidative stress.
Notable saffron antioxidants include crocin, crocetin, safranal, and kaempferol (2Trusted Source).
Crocin and crocetin are carotenoid pigments and responsible for saffron’s red color. Both compounds may have antidepressant properties, protect brain cells against progressive damage, improve inflammation, reduce appetite, and aid weight loss (2Trusted Source, 3Trusted Source).
Safranal gives saffron its distinct taste and aroma. Research shows that it may help improve your mood, memory, and learning ability, as well as protect your brain cells against oxidative stress (4Trusted Source).
Lastly, kaempferol is found in saffron flower petals. This compound has been linked to health benefits, such as reduced inflammation, anticancer properties, and antidepressant activity (2Trusted Source, 5Trusted Source).
May Improve Mood and Treat Depressive Symptoms
Saffron is nicknamed the “sunshine spice.”
That’s not just due to its distinct color, but also because it may help brighten your mood.
In a review of five studies, saffron supplements were significantly more effective than placebos at treating symptoms of mild-to-moderate depression (6Trusted Source).
Other studies found that taking 30 mg of saffron daily was just as effective as Fluoxetine, Imipramine, and Citalopram — conventional treatments for depression. Additionally, fewer people experienced side effects from saffron compared to other treatments (7Trusted Source, 8Trusted Source, 9Trusted Source).
While these findings are promising, longer human studies with more participants are needed before saffron can be recommended as a treatment for depression.
May Have Cancer-Fighting Properties
In test-tube studies, saffron and its compounds have been shown to selectively kill colon cancer cells or suppress their growth, while leaving normal cells unharmed (12Trusted Source).
This effect also applies to skin, bone marrow, prostate, lung, breast, cervix, and several other cancer cells (13Trusted Source).
What’s more, test-tube studies have found that crocin — the main antioxidant in saffron — may make cancer cells more sensitive to chemotherapy drugs (14Trusted Source).
While these findings from test-tube studies are promising, the anticancer effects of saffron are poorly studied in humans, and more research is needed.
May Reduce PMS Symptoms
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a term that describes physical, emotional, and psychological symptoms occurring before the start of a menstrual period.
Studies show that saffron may help treat PMS symptoms.
May Act as an Aphrodisiac
Aphrodisiacs are foods or supplements that help boost your libido.
Studies have shown that saffron may have aphrodisiac properties — especially in people taking antidepressants.
For instance, taking 30 mg of saffron daily over four weeks significantly improved erectile function over placebo in men with antidepressant-related erectile dysfunction (17Trusted Source).
Additionally, an analysis of six studies showed that taking saffron significantly improved erectile function, libido, and overall satisfaction but not semen characteristics (18Trusted Source).
In women with low sexual desire due to taking antidepressants, 30 mg of saffron daily over four weeks reduced sex-related pain and increased sexual desire and lubrication, compared to a placebo (19Trusted Source).
May Reduce Appetite and Aid Weight Loss
Snacking is a common habit that may put you at risk of gaining unwanted weight.
According to research, saffron may help prevent snacking by curbing your appetite.
In one eight-week study, women taking saffron supplements felt significantly more full, snacked less frequently, and lost significantly more weight than women in the placebo group (20Trusted Source).
In another eight-week study, taking a saffron extract supplement helped significantly reduce appetite, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and total fat mass (3Trusted Source).
However, scientists are unsure how saffron curbs appetite and aids weight loss. One theory is that saffron elevates your mood, which in turn reduces your desire to snack (20Trusted Source).
Easy to Add to Your Diet
In small doses, saffron has a subtle taste and aroma and pairs well with savory dishes, such as paella, risottos, and other rice dishes.
The best way to draw out saffron’s unique flavor is to soak the threads in hot — but not boiling — water. Add the threads and the liquid to your recipe to achieve a deeper, richer flavor.
Saffron is readily available at most specialty markets and can be purchased as threads or in powdered form. However, it’s best to buy the threads, as they give you more versatility and are less likely to be adulterated.
Though saffron is the most expensive spice in the world, a small amount goes a long way, and you often won’t need more than a pinch in your recipes. In fact, using too much saffron can give your recipes an overpowering medicinal taste.
Risks, Precautions, and Dosage
Saffron is generally safe with little to no side effects.
In standard cooking amounts, saffron does not appear to cause adverse effects in humans.
As a dietary supplement, people can safely take up to 1.5 grams of saffron per day. However, only 30 mg of saffron per day has been shown to be enough to reap its health benefits (7Trusted Source, 17Trusted Source, 30Trusted Source).
As with any supplement, speak to your doctor before taking saffron in supplement form.
Another issue with saffron — especially saffron powder — is that it may be adulterated with other ingredients, such as beet, red-dyed silk fibers, turmeric, and paprika. Adulteration cuts cost for manufacturers, as real saffron is expensive to harvest (33Trusted Source).
Therefore, it’s important to purchase saffron from a reputable brand to ensure you get an authentic product. If the saffron appears too cheap, its best to avoid it.